"The ambition of human beings to extend their knowledge favours the belief
that the unknown is only an extension of the known:
that the abstract and the concrete are ruled by similar principles:
that the finite and the infinite are homogeneous."

Winston Churchill
Sir Winston Churchill

Scientific Proficiency Strands

National Research Council 2007. Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
https://doi.org/10.17226/11625.

Strand 1: Know, use, and interpret scientific explanations of the natural world.

This strand includes acquiring facts and the conceptual structures that incorporate those facts and using these ideas productively to understand many phenomena in the natural world. This includes using those ideas to construct and refine explanations, arguments, or models of particular phenomena.

Strand 2: Generate and evaluate scientific evidence and explanations.

This strand encompasses the knowledge and skills needed to build and refine models based on evidence. This includes designing and analyzing empirical investigations and using empirical evidence to construct and defend arguments.

Strand 3: Understand the nature and development of scientific knowledge.

This strand focuses on students’ understanding of science as a way of knowing. Scientific knowledge is a particular kind of knowledge with its own sources, justifications, and uncertainties. Students who understand scientific knowledge recognize that predictions or explanations can be revised on the basis of seeing new evidence or developing a new model.

Strand 4: Participate productively in scientific practices and discourse.

This strand includes students’ understanding of the norms of participating in science as well as their motivation and attitudes toward science. Students who see science as valuable and interesting tend to be good learners and participants in science. They believe that steady effort in understanding science pays off—not that some people understand science and other people never will. To engage productively in science, however, students need to understand how to participate in scientific debates, adopt a critical stance, and be willing to ask questions.
  
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